Unit 4 Assignment: Community-Acquired Infectious Disease

Unit 4 Assignment: Community-Acquired Infectious Disease

Recently, there was an influenza outbreak, usually referred to as the flu, in my local town. Influenza is a communicable respiratory disease caused by influenza viruses that invade the nasal passages, throat, and occasionally the lungs. The reason for selecting influenza as the primary subject of this discussion is its recurrent occurrence, which affects a significant percentage of the population during specific periods. According to The National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (2024), flu is identified by symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, chills, runny nose, body pains, and exhaustion. Although it is a common condition, it continues to be a concern for public health due to its potential to result in serious complications, particularly among vulnerable populations such as the elderly, young children, and persons with weakened immune systems.


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Chain of Infection


Description of each Component of the Chain of Infection Potential Interventions

or Prevention (Identify Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention)




The causative agent of influenza (flu) is the influenza virus. Influenza viruses are members of the Orthomyxoviridae family and are categorized into three primary types: A, B, and C. These viruses are additionally distinguished by several subtypes and strains, which are determined by the surface proteins hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), 2022). Influenza A viruses can infect humans, birds, and other animals, resulting in seasonal outbreaks and sometimes even pandemics. The virus possesses an envelope and consists of eight individual RNA segments, each of which is single-stranded. This characteristic facilitates frequent genetic alterations through antigenic drift and shift, hence complicating the process of vaccine development (ECDC, 2022). Influenza viruses predominantly infect the respiratory epithelium, resulting in a spectrum of symptoms ranging from minor respiratory distress to serious consequences, particularly in susceptible populations.  





The influenza virus primarily resides in the human respiratory tract. Infected individuals release the virus through respiratory secretions (Boktor & Hafner, 2023). Primary prevention:

Promote influenza immunization to decrease the overall population of infected persons. Encourage adherence to respiratory hygiene habits, such as the act of covering both the mouth and nose while coughing or sneezing, to reduce the release of viruses. Offer teaching on proper hand hygiene to minimize the spread of contaminants.


Portal(s) of Exit


The virus is transmitted from the host through respiratory droplets that are expelled during coughing, sneezing, or talking (Boktor & Hafner, 2023). Primary prevention

Promote the utilization of face masks, particularly during periods of influenza prevalence, to lower the emission of respiratory droplets into the surroundings. Promote the adherence of infected individuals to respiratory etiquette to minimize the dissemination of droplets containing the virus.


Mode(s) of Transmission


The main mode of transmission for influenza is through the air. Primary prevention:

Implement public health initiatives to enhance knowledge regarding the significance of immunization, proper hand hygiene, and appropriate respiratory behaviors (Boktor & Hafner, 2023). Offer accessible materials for the community to utilize.


Portal(s) of Entry


The virus enters the host via the respiratory tract. Primary prevention:

Educate the community about the significance of refraining from touching the face, particularly the eyes, nose, and mouth, to minimize the likelihood of introducing the virus into the respiratory system (ECDC, 2022). Promote the utilization of tissues or elbows for coughing or sneezing.


Host Characteristics


Individuals lacking immunity to the particular strain of influenza are vulnerable hosts. Specific populations, such as the elderly, small children, and persons with weakened immune systems, are at a higher risk of experiencing serious complications. Secondary prevention Involves the identification and prioritization of high-risk people for vaccination campaigns to strengthen their immunity (Boktor & Hafner, 2023).

Tertiary Prevention:

Ensure timely and immediate access to medical care for those exhibiting symptoms to reduce complications and prevent the spread of the disease within the community (Chow et al., 2019).



Analyzing the sequence of transmission for influenza and outlining preventive measures provides a thorough method for controlling epidemics in the community. Emphasizing vaccination, practicing respiratory hygiene, and raising public awareness are vital measures to protect against the influenza virus. The introspection into the influence of influenza in my neighborhood underscores the recurrent nature of the illness and its capacity to disrupt daily life, especially for susceptible individuals. Observing the extensive impact of the flu underscores the significance of community-wide cooperation in following preventive measures and advocating for vaccination as a shared obligation. To protect the overall well-being of the community, it is crucial to promote a culture of health-conscious behavior and prompt reaction to outbreaks, particularly those caused by infectious diseases such as influenza.




European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). (2022, April 12). Factsheet about seasonal influenza. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/seasonal-influenza/facts/factsheet

Boktor, S. W., & Hafner, J. W. (2023, January 23). Influenza. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459363/#:~:text=Signs%20and%20symptoms%20of%20influenza

Chow, E. J., Doyle, J. D., & Uyeki, T. M. (2019). Influenza virus-related critical illness: prevention, diagnosis, treatment. Critical Care, 23(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-019-2491-9

National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. (2024). Flu (Influenza). Https://Www.nfid.org/. https://www.nfid.org/infectious-disease/flu/




  1. Select a community-acquired infectious disease from a past or recent outbreak within your community (exclude COVID viruses). Examples of infectious diseases can be found on the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases website.
  2. Start with an introduction in the narrative format that briefly explains the infectious disease and why you chose the infectious disease.
  3. After the introduction, you will insert the table from this template: “Chain of Infection
  4. Please SINGLE SPACE the table; the rest of the document should be double-spaced as required for APA format.
  5. Answer each question in the table.
  6. After the table, you will provide a concluding paragraph that includes a self-reflection on the impact of the chosen infectious disease in your community.
  7. Use at least three (3) scholarly references to obtain your information.
  8. The assignment should be 3-4 pages (including the title and reference page).

Your writing assignment should:

  • follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.);
  • be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful;
  • display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; and;
  • use APA 7th edition formatting and citation style.


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